All Pony code that actually does something, rather than defining types etc, appears in named blocks which are referred to as methods. There are three kinds of methods: functions, constructors, and behaviours. All methods are attached to type definitions (e.g. classes) - there are no global functions.
Behaviours are used for handling asynchronous messages sent to actors. We'll look at those later.
Can I have some code outside of any methods like I do in Python? No. All Pony code must be within a method.
Pony functions are quite like functions (or methods) in other languages. They can have 0 or more parameters and 0 or 1 return values. If the return type is omitted then the function will have a return value of
class C fun add(x: U32, y: U32): U32 => x + y fun nop() => add(1, 2) // Pointless, we ignore the result
The function parameters (if any) are specified in parentheses after the function name. Functions that don't take any parameters still need to have the parentheses.
Each parameter is given a name and a type. In our example function
add has 2 parameters,
y, both of which are type
U32. The values passed to a function call (the
2 in our example) are called arguments and when the call is made they are evaluated and assigned to the parameters. Parameters may not be assigned to within the function - they are effectively declared
After the parameters come the return type. If nothing will be returned this is simply omitted.
After the return value, there's a
=> and then finally the function body. The value returned is simply the value of the function body (remember that everything is an expression), which is simply the value of the last command in the function.
If you want to exit a function early then use the
return command. If the function has a return type then you need to provide a value to return. If the function does not have a return type then
return should appear on its own, without a value.
Pony applies tail call optimization when applicable to allow a recursive implementation such as the following factorial function:
fun factorial(x: I32): I32 ? => if x < 0 then error end if x == 0 then 1 else x * factorial(x - 1) end
The exact requirements to qualify for this optimization depends on the version of the LLVM compiler.
Can I overload functions by argument type? Case functions provide a mechanism for providing several functions with the same name with different implementations that are selected by argument type.
Pony constructors are used to initialise newly created objects, as in many languages. However, unlike many languages, Pony constructors are named so you can have as many as you like, taking whatever parameters you like. By convention, the main constructor of each type (if there is such a thing for any given type) is called
class Foo var _x: U32 new create() => _x = 0 new from_int(x: U32) => _x = x
The purpose of a constructor is to set up the internal state of the object being created. To ensure this is done constructors must initialise all the fields in the object being constructed.
Can I exit a constructor early? Yes. Just then use the
return command without a value. The object must already be in a legal state to do this.
As in many other languages, methods in Pony are called by providing the arguments within parentheses after the method name. The parentheses are required even if there are no arguments being passed to the method.
class Foo fun hello(name: String): String => "hello " + name fun f() => let a = hello("Fred")
Constructors are usually called "on" a type, by specifying the type that is to be created. To do this just specify the type, followed by a dot, followed by the name of the constructor you want to call.
class Foo var _x: U32 new create() => _x = 0 new from_int(x: U32) => _x = x class Bar fun f() => var a: Foo = Foo.create() var b: Foo = Foo.from_int(3)
Functions are always called on an object. Again just specify the object, followed by a dot, followed by the name of the function to call. If the object to call on is omitted then the current object is used (i.e.
class Foo var _x: U32 new create() => _x = 0 new from_int(x: U32) => _x = x fun get(): U32 => _x class Bar fun f() => var a: Foo = Foo.from_int(3) var b: U32 = a.get() var c: U32 = g(b) fun g(x: U32): U32 => x + 1
Constructors can also be called on an expression. Here an object is created of the same type as the specified expression - this is equivalent to directly specifying the type.
class Foo var _x: U32 new create() => _x = 0 new from_int(x: U32) => _x = x class Bar fun f() => var a: Foo = Foo.create() var b: Foo = a.from_int(3)
When defining a method you can provide default values for any of the arguments. The caller then has the choice to use the values you have provided or to provide their own. Default argument values are specified with a
= after the parameter name.
class Coord var _x: U32 var _y: U32 new create(x: U32 = 0, y: U32 = 0) => _x = x _y = y class Bar fun f() => var a: Coord = Coord.create() // Contains (0, 0) var b: Coord = Coord.create(3) // Contains (3, 0) var b: Coord = Coord.create(3, 4) // Contains (3, 4)
Do I have to provide default values for all of my arguments? No, you can provide defaults for as many, or as few, as you like.
So far, when calling methods we have always given all the arguments in order. This is known as using positional arguments. However, you can also specify the arguments in any order you like by specifying their names. This is known as using named arguments.
To call a method using named arguments use the
where keyword, followed by the named arguments and their values.
class Coord var _x: U32 var _y: U32 new create(x: U32 = 0, y: U32 = 0) => _x = x _y = y class Bar fun f() => var a: Coord = Coord.create(where y = 4, x = 3)
Should I specify
where for each named argument? No. There must only be one
where in each method call.
Named and positional arguments can be used together in a single call. Just start with the positional arguments you want to specify, then a
where and finally the named arguments. But be careful, each argument must be specified only once.
Default arguments can also be used in combination with positional and named arguments - just miss out any for which you want to use the default.
class Foo fun f(a:U32 = 1, b: U32 = 2, c: U32 = 3, d: U32 = 4, e: U32 = 5): U32 => 0 fun g() => f(6, 7 where d = 8) // Equivalent to: f(6, 7, 3, 8, 5)
Can I call using positional arguments but miss out the first one? No. If you use positional arguments they must be the first ones in the call.
Method chaining allows you to chain calls on an object without requiring the method to return its receiver. The syntax to call a method and chain the receiver is
object.>method(), which is roughly equivalent to
(object.method() ; object). Chaining a method discards its normal return value.
primitive Printer fun print_two_strings(out: StdStream, s1: String, s2: String) => out.>print(s1).>print(s2) // Equivalent to: out.print(s1) out.print(s2) out
Note that the last
.> in a chain can be a
. if the return value of the last call matters.
interface Factory fun add_option(o: Option) fun make_object(): Object primitive Foo fun object_wrong(f: Factory, o1: Option, o2: Option): Object => f.>add_option(o1).>add_option(o2).>make_object() // Error! The expression returns a Factory fun object_right(f: Factory, o1: Option, o2: Option): Object => f.>add_option(o1).>add_option(o2).make_object() // Works. The expression returns an Object
In Pony method names start either with a lower case letter or with an underscore followed by a lowercase letter. Methods with a leading underscore are private. This means they can only be called by code within the same package. Methods without a leading underscore are public and can be called by anyone.
Can I start my method name with 2 (or more) underscores? No. If the first character is an underscore then the second one MUST be a lower case letter.