Like most other programming languages Pony allows you to store data in variables. There are a few different kinds of variables which have different lifetimes and are used for slightly different purposes.
Local variables in Pony work very much as they do in other languages, allowing you to store temporary values while you perform calculations. Local variables live within a chunk of code (they are local to that chunk) and are created every time that code chunk executes and disposed of when it completes.
To define a local variable the
var keyword is used (
let can also be used, but we'll get to that later). Right after the
var comes the variable's name, and then you can (optionally) put a
: followed by the variable's type. For example:
var x: String = "Hello"
Here, we're assigning the string literal
You don't have to give a value to the variable when you define it: you can assign one later if you prefer. If you try to read the value from a variable before you've assigned one, the compiler will complain instead of allowing the dreaded uninitialised variable bug.
Every variable has a type, but you don't have to specify it in the declaration if you provide an initial value. The compiler will automatically use the type of the initial value for the variable.
The following definitions of
z are all effectively identical.
var x: String = "Hello" var y = "Hello" var z: String z = "Hello"
Can I miss out both the type and initial value for a variable? No. The compiler will complain that it can't figure out a type for that variable.
All local variable names start with a lower case letter. If you want to you can end them with a prime
' (or more than one) which is useful when you need a second variable with almost the same meaning as the first. For example you might have one variable called
time and another called
The chunk of code that a variable lives in is known as its scope. Exactly what its scope is depends on where it is defined. For example, the scope of a variable defined within the
then expression of an
if statement is that
then expression. We haven't looked at
if statements yet, but they're very similar to every other language.
if a > b then var x = "a is bigger" env.out.print(x) // OK end env.out.print(x) // Illegal
Variables only exist from when they are defined until the end of the current scope. For our variable
x this is the
end at the end of the then expression: after that it cannot be used.
Var vs. let
Local variables are declared with either a
var or a
var means the variable can be assigned and reassigned as many times as you like. Using
let means the variable can only be assigned once.
var x: U32 = 3 let y: U32 = 4 x = 5 // OK y = 6 // Error, y is let
You never have to declare variables as
let, but if you know you're never going to change a variable then using
let is a good way to catch errors. It can also serve as a useful comment, indicating the value is not meant to be changed.
In Pony, fields are variables that live within objects. They work like fields in other object-oriented languages.
Fields have the same lifetime as the object they're in, rather than being scoped. They are set up by the object constructor and disposed of along with the object.
If the name of a field starts with
_, it's private. That means only the type the field is in can have code that reads or writes that field. Otherwise, the field is public, and can be read or written from anywhere.
Just like local variables, fields can be
let. They can also have an initial value assigned in their definition, just like local variables, or they can be given their initial value in a constructor.
Can fields come after the constructor? No. To keep Pony's grammar unambiguous, only type aliases are allowed between an
object is Trait, etc. and a field definition. In any case, it's good style to make such variables easily visible to the programmer because fields are accessible from any method of the type they're in.
Unlike local variables, some types of fields can be declared using
embed. Specifically, only classes or structs can be embedded - interfaces, traits, primitives and numeric types cannot. A field declared using
embed is similar to one declared using
let, but at the implementation level the memory for the embedded class is laid out directly within the outer class. Contrast this with
var, where the implementation uses pointers to reference the field class. Embedded fields can be passed to other functions in exactly the same way as let or var fields. Embedded fields must be initialised from a constructor expression.
Why would I use
embed avoids a pointer indirection when accessing a field and a separate memory allocation when creating that field. By default, it is advised to use
embed if possible. However, since an embedded field is allocated alongside its parent object, exterior references to the field forbids garbage collection of the parent, which can result in higher memory usage if a field outlives its parent. Use
let if this is a concern for you.
Some programming languages have global variables that can be accessed from anywhere in the code. What a bad idea! Pony doesn't have global variables at all.
Some programming languages let you declare a variable with the same name as an existing variable, and then there are rules about which one you get. This is called shadowing, and it's a source of bugs. If you accidentally shadow a variable in Pony, the compiler will complain.
If you need a variable with nearly the same name, you can use a prime